X86 Assembly language tutorial
|University of Virginia Computer Science
CS216: Program and Data Representation, Spring 2006
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This guide describes the basics of 32-bit x86 assembly language programming, covering a small but useful subset of the available instructions and assembler directives. There are several different assembly languages for generating x86 machine code. The one we will use in CS216 is the Microsoft Macro Assembler (MASM) assembler. MASM uses the standard Intel syntax for writing x86 assembly code.
The full x86 instruction set is large and complex (Intel's x86 instruction set manuals comprise over 2900 pages), and we do not cover it all in this guide. For example, there is a 16-bit subset of the x86 instruction set. Using the 16-bit programming model can be quite complex. It has a segmented memory model, more restrictions on register usage, and so on. In this guide, we will limit our attention to more modern aspects of x86 programming, and delve into the instruction set only in enough detail to get a basic feel for x86 programming.
Modern (i.e 386 and beyond) x86 processors have eight 32-bit general purpose registers, as depicted in Figure 1. The register names are mostly historical. For example, EAX used to be called the accumulator since it was used by a number of arithmetic operations, and ECX was known as the counter since it was used to hold a loop index. Whereas most of the registers have lost their special purposes in the modern instruction set, by convention, two are reserved for special purposes — the stack pointer (ESP) and the base pointer (EBP).
For the EAX, EBX, ECX, and EDX registers, subsections may be used. For example, the least significant 2 bytes of EAX can be treated as a 16-bit register called AX. The least significant byte of AX can be used as a single 8-bit register called AL, while the most significant byte of AX can be used as a single 8-bit register called AH. These names refer to the same physical register. When a two-byte quantity is placed into DX, the update affects the value of DH, DL, and EDX. These sub-registers are mainly hold-overs from older, 16-bit versions of the instruction set. However, they are sometimes convenient when dealing with data that are smaller than 32-bits (e.g. 1-byte ASCII characters).
When referring to registers in assembly language, the names are not case-sensitive. For example, the names EAX and eax refer to the same register.
Figure 1. x86 Registers
Declaring Static Data RegionsYou can declare static data regions (analogous to global variables) in x86 assembly using special assembler directives for this purpose. Data declarations should be preceded by the .DATA directive. Following this directive, the directives DB, DW, and DD can be used to declare one, two, and four byte data locations, respectively. Declared locations can be labeled with names for later reference — this is similar to declaring variables by name, but abides by some lower level rules. For example, locations declared in sequence will be located in memory next to one another.
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